Example Of Essays In Philippine Literature
In your essay, write about the importance of literature; explain why we need to study literature and how it can help us in the future. Then, give examples of literary works that teach important moral lessons as evidence.
Example Of Essays In Philippine Literature
For your essay, choose two works of literature with similar themes. Then, discuss their similarities and differences in plot, theme, and characters. For example, these themes could include death, grief, love and hate, or relationships. You can also discuss which of the two pieces of literature presents your chosen theme better.
Literature reflects the ideas of the period it is from; for example, ancient Greek literature, such as Antigone, depicts the ideal woman as largely obedient and subservient, to an extent. For your essay, you can write about how gender roles have evolved in literature throughout the years, specifically about women. Be sure to give examples to support your points.
Literary devices are often used to enhance one's writing and make it more appealing or interesting to the reader. One popular literary device is the allusion. What does an allusion in poetry look like? And what are some allusion examples in literature?
In this article, we'll be giving you 11 allusion examples, from those in poetry and literature to ones often used in everyday conversation. We'll also go over two tips for identifying allusions in a text. But first, what is allusion exactly?
Here, we're giving you 11 allusion examples from poetry, literature, and everyday speech so that you can get a better sense of what allusions look like and how they're used. We also provide you with a short analysis of each allusion example.
It's popular to use allusion in poetry, but what about in (prose) literature, such as novels? Let's look at some famous allusion examples in literature to show how this device can be used effectively.
In the Philippines, another example of a disorder believed to be namamana is neural tube defects. In an informal discussion, parents of children with neural tube defects admitted at a tertiary government hospital acknowledged genetic inheritance as a possible etiology of the condition (Abacan 2011, unpublished research). They verbalized that birth defects, especially those manifesting with physical deformity, are said to be namamana or nasa lahi (in the blood). Although recent literature suggests that there is conflict in this popular belief of neural tube defects among women with affected children (personal communication with Dr. M Abacan 2011), the concept of namamana is still an important issue. To explain, nervous system anomalies such as neural tube defects remain in the top three of the most common birth defects reported per 10,000 admissions in a government tertiary hospital (Padilla et al. 2011). Furthermore, this concept is congruent with published studies reporting the increased recurrence risk when a family member is previously diagnosed to have this condition (Barlow-Stewart 2007). Considering the increased risk of recurrence associated with neural tube defects, the concept of namamana can be incorporated in the genetic counseling session as a factor that could contribute to the occurrence of neural tube defects in a succeeding pregnancy. In turn, many parents will ask what methods are available to decrease the recurrence risk, and this will be an appropriate avenue to explain the value of folic acid supplementation. Anchoring on namamana in public health education campaigns in the promotion of folic acid supplementation among women of childbearing age may be helpful in improving adherence.
Metaphors in literature are drops of water: as essential as they are ubiquitous. Writers use literary metaphors to evoke an emotional response or paint a vivid picture. Other times, a metaphor might explain a phenomenon. Given the amount of nuance that goes into it, a metaphor example in a text can sometimes deserve as much interpretation as the text itself.
Literature reviews are in great demand in most scientific fields. Their need stems from the ever-increasing output of scientific publications . For example, compared to 1991, in 2008 three, eight, and forty times more papers were indexed in Web of Science on malaria, obesity, and biodiversity, respectively . Given such mountains of papers, scientists cannot be expected to examine in detail every single new paper relevant to their interests . Thus, it is both advantageous and necessary to rely on regular summaries of the recent literature. Although recognition for scientists mainly comes from primary research, timely literature reviews can lead to new synthetic insights and are often widely read . For such summaries to be useful, however, they need to be compiled in a professional way .
The bottom-right situation (many literature reviews but few research papers) is not just a theoretical situation; it applies, for example, to the study of the impacts of climate change on plant diseases, where there appear to be more literature reviews than research studies .
It is challenging to achieve a successful review on all these fronts. A solution can be to involve a set of complementary coauthors: some people are excellent at mapping what has been achieved, some others are very good at identifying dark clouds on the horizon, and some have instead a knack at predicting where solutions are going to come from. If your journal club has exactly this sort of team, then you should definitely write a review of the literature! In addition to critical thinking, a literature review needs consistency, for example in the choice of passive vs. active voice and present vs. past tense.
Unhappily, many health care workers are used to poor communication and teamwork, as a result of a culture of low expectations that has developed in many health care settings. This culture, in which health care workers have come to expect faulty and incomplete exchange of information, leads to errors because even conscientious professionals tend to ignore potential red flags and clinical discrepancies. They view these warning signals as indicators of routine repetitions of poor communication rather than unusual, worrisome indicators. (Chassin, 2002)Although poor communication can lead to tragic consequences, a review of the literature also shows that effective communication can lead to the following positive outcomes: improved information flow, more effective interventions, improved safety, enhanced employee morale, increased patient and family satisfaction, and decreased lengths of stay. (Joint Commission Resources, 2005). Gittell and others (2000) show that implementing systems to facilitate team communication can substantially improve quality. Effective communication among staff encourages effective teamwork and promotes continuity and clarity within the patient care team. At its best, good communication encourages collaboration, fosters teamwork, and helps prevent errors.In health care environments characterized by a hierarchical culture, physicians are at the top of that hierarchy. Consequently, they may feel that the environment is collaborative and that communication is open while nurses and other direct care staff perceive communication problems. Hierarchy differences can come into play and diminish the collaborative interactions necessary to ensure that the proper treatments are delivered appropriately. When hierarchy differences exist, people on the lower end of the hierarchy tend to be uncomfortable speaking up about problems or concerns. Intimidating behavior by individuals at the top of a hierarchy can hinder communication and give the impression that the individual is unapproachable (Joint Commission Resources, 2005; Weick, 2002 ) .Staff who witness poor performance in their peers may be hesitant to speak up because of fear of retaliation or the impression that speaking up will not do any good. Relationships between the individuals providing patient care can have a powerful influence on how and even if important information is communicated. Research has shown that delays in patient care and recurring problems from unresolved disputes are often the by-product of physician-nurse disagreement. Several results of research has identified a common trend in which nurses are either reluctant or refuse to call physicians, even in the face of a deteriorating status in patient care. Reasons for this include intimidation, fear of getting into a confrontational or antagonistic discussion, lack of confidentiality, fear of retaliation, and the fact that nothing ever seems to change. Many of these issues have to deal more with personality and communication style (Rosenstein. 2002). The major concern about disruptive behaviors is how frequently they occur and the potential negative impact they can have on patient care. Our research has shown that 17 percent of respondents to our survey research in 2004-2006 knew of a specific adverse event that occurred as a result of disruptive behavior. A quote from one of the respondents illustrates this point: "Poor communication" postop because of disruptive reputation of physician resulted in delayed treatment, aspiration, and eventual demise." (Rosenstein, 2005)Time spent. Time spent during a visit plays a role in patient satisfaction, with satisfaction rates improving as visit length increases. Time spent chatting during the visit was also related to higher rates of satisfaction. Physicians with high-volume practices were more efficient with their time but had lower rates of patient satisfaction, offered fewer preventive services and were viewed as less sensitive in the doctor-patient relationship (as cited by Thiedke, 2007). Interestingly, one study showed that while physicians felt rushed 10 percent of the time, patients felt that way only 3 percent of the time. Patient satisfaction was identical whether the physician did or did not feel rushed. This suggests that physicians may be more sensitive to feelings of being rushed and their feelings may not reflect the actual time spent during the visit. (Lin, et. al., 2001)Technical skills/quality. In the healthcare delivery, healthcare quality has two distinct facets: technical quality (also called quality in fact) and functional quality. Technical quality refers to the accuracy of medical diagnoses and procedures, and is generally comprehensible to the professional community, but not to patients. Study conducted by Jaipul (2003) patient perceives functional quality as the manner in which the service is delivered. Functional quality perceptions may influence future decisions to return to a facility for service. Some empirical evidence suggests that patients' quality judgment may be positively associated with technical quality, as reflected in outcomes such as risk-adjusted mortality among hospitalized patients for medical conditions (Lin, et. al., 2002).Technical quality cannot be attained without the technical skills of the health care personnel. The study conducted by Chang, et. al. (2006) has looked at patients' assessment of their physicians' technical skills and the effect on satisfaction, but the findings are contradictory. However, Fung, et. al., (2005) study found that when forced to make a trade-off, participants expressed a strong preference for physicians who have high technical skills. Otani, et. al., (2005) findings revealed that patients also indicated that a physician's ability to make the correct diagnosis and craft an effective treatment plan were more important than his or her "bedside manner."System-related factors. Patient satisfaction is not simply a product of the patient's demographics and the physician's skills. It is also affected by the system in which care is provided. Otani's (2005) findings disclosed that although it is clear that patients' first concern is their doctor, but they also value the team with which the doctor works with. One study (Wolosin, et, al., 2005) found that while physician care was most influential to patients' satisfaction, the compassion, willingness to help and promptness of the physician's staff were next in importance. In another large database of surveys, nurses were the next most important source of satisfaction, ahead of access-to-care issue. Patients who had remained in a practice for more than 15 years attributed their loyalty to their physician first and to the "team concept" second as cited by Thiedke (2007). Effective referrals play a role in patient satisfaction (Roseanne et. al., 2006) . One study looked at referrals from the standpoint of the family physician, the referral physician and the patient, and found that satisfaction with the referral's outcome was higher when the family physician initiated the referral (Bekkelund , et. al., 2005). Similarly, a study of patients treated for recurring headaches revealed that those who self-referred to a neurologist were less satisfied than those whose primary doctor had referred them. A survey of cancer patients found that they valued their family physician highly and wanted to maintain contact with him or her, even when they were receiving cancer care elsewhere (cited by Thiedke 2007).Donahue, et. al. (2005) states that continuity of care, one of the pillars of family medicine, is felt to have suffered under managed care Norman, et. al., (2001). While it is unclear to what degree patients in general value continuity of care, it is clear that patients who have been followed by their physician for more than two years are more satisfied with their care - particularly when they are able to see their own physician (Gary, et. al, (2005). Beach et. al.. (2005) exposed that patients who reported being treated with dignity and who were involved in decisions were more satisfied and more adherent to their doctor's recommendations. Stelfox, et. al, (2005) exposed that patient satisfaction surveys of inpatient physician performance showed an inverse relationship between satisfaction and risk management episodes. In addition, physicians can find practical take-away lessons in the literature, such as the following: treat patients with dignity and include them in decision making; work with a team; elicit patients' concerns; and dress in semiformal attire and always smiling. Lastly, while it may not be as easy as the above lessons, find pleasure in what you do. Physicians who report high professional satisfaction have patients who are more satisfied with their care. (Haas, et. al., 2000).Synthesis of the ArtsStudies of Thiedke (2007), Haviland, et. al., (2006), Haviland, et. al., (2006), Frostholm (2005), and Desai (2005) studied if there is significant relationship between demographic profile and patient's satisfaction. Studies of Rao, et. al., (2005), and Bell, et. al. (2001) focused on the physician-related factors of patient satisfaction. This patient satisfaction was attributed in recognizing and addressing patient expectations while Bell, et. al. (2001) looked into the desire for a referral or for physical therapy as the reason for patient satisfaction.Shaw, and his colleague (2005), Thiedke (2007), Flin, et. al., 2003, Sutcliff, Lewton and Rosenthal (2004), Chassin (2002), and Rosenstein, et. al., 2005 presented that doctor-patient communication can also affect rates of satisfaction. Extensive review of the literature shows that communication, collaboration, and teamwork do not always occur in clinical settings. An example was the study by Sutcliff, Lewton, and Rosenthal (2004) reveals that social, relational, and organizational structures contribute to communication failures that have been implicated as a large contributor to adverse clinical events and outcomes.Jaipul (2003) and Lin, et. al., (2002) studied on the technical quality (also called quality in fact) and functional quality. While the study conducted by Chang, et. al. (2006), and Fung, et. al., (2005), and Otani (2005) has looked at technical skills of the health workers. The study of Otani (2005) also center on system related factor such as teamwork of other health professional, Wolosin, et. al., (2005) stress that compassion and willingness to help of the health care professions, Bekkelund, et. al., (2005) and Roseanne et. al., 2006 disclosed referrals as factors that persuade patient satisfaction. Donahue, et. al. (2005), Norman, et. al. (2001) states that continuity of care are factors that offer patient satisfaction. (Gary, et. al, (2005), Beach et. al.. (2005), Stelfox, et. al., (2005), and (Haas, et. al., 2000), exposed that patients who reported being treated with dignity, as factors that influence patient's satisfaction.Gaps Bridged by the StudyWhile most of the literature cited which had been reviewed concerned whether there is relationship between demographic profile and patient's satisfaction, physician-related factors addressing patient expectations the desire for a referral or for physical therapy was the reason for patient satisfaction. Extensive review of the literature shows that communication, collaboration, and teamwork do not always occur in clinical settings. Technical quality, technical skills of the health workers, communication and teamwork of other health professional, compassion and willingness to help, patients who reported being treated with dignity as factors that influence patient's satisfaction were also studied. However, there is no research yet conducted on the same topic and on the recommendations to have quality management program of the healthcare services at Dr. Fernando B. Duran Sr. Memorial Hospital (DFDMH).Theoretical FrameworkThis study will be anchor to Expectation Fulfillment Theory by Linder-Pelz (1982). Expectations, which are central to the consumer model, play in determining satisfaction with healthcare. The work of Linder-Peltz on the interaction between patient expectations and perceptions is seen to be particularly influential in this respect. Linder-Peltz's viewed expectations have an effect on satisfaction independent of other variables (i.e., irrespective of their fulfillment) leading to conclude that this is not to say that expressions of satisfaction have little to do with the qualities of the service provided or the care offered and clearly "engendering positive expectations' must not be confused with raising false hopes which deliberately mislead patients. Even so, the assumption that satisfaction is entirely the product of an evaluation by itself but it may not apply in all situations.In this regard Zeithaml, et. al., (1990) have noted that while consumers ultimately judge the quality of services on their perceptions of the technical outcome provided and how that outcome was delivered (process quality), many professional services are highly complex and a clear outcome is not always evident. This is certainly true of many healthcare scenarios where the technical quality of the service- the actual competence of the provider or effectiveness of the outcome - is not easy to judge. The patient may never know for sure whether the service was performed correctly or even if it was needed in the first place. Williams (1994) has observed that the greater the perceived unexplained or technical nature of treatment the more likely it is that many service users will not believe in the legitimacy of holding their own expectations, or of their evaluations (Zelthaml, et. al., 1990).In addition, if a service user is coming into contact with the system for the first time then expectations, which for many have been formed through past experience, might be waiting formation. In both cases a patient might wish for the health professional to adopt a paternalistic role in the relationship ('doctor knows best') while they themselves remain a passive partner. Donabedian (1980) sees quality of healthcare as a trilogy comprising 'structure, process and outcome