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Gustav Zhuravlev
Gustav Zhuravlev

Optical Networks A Practical Perspective Solution Manual Solution Manual



Abstract:(1) Background: Low back disorders are a leading cause of missed work and physical disability in manual material handling due to repetitive lumbar loading and overexertion. Ergonomic assessments are often performed to understand and mitigate the risk of musculoskeletal overexertion injuries. Wearable sensor solutions for monitoring low back loading have the potential to improve the quality, quantity, and efficiency of ergonomic assessments and to expand opportunities for the personalized, continuous monitoring of overexertion injury risk. However, existing wearable solutions using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) are limited in how accurately they can estimate back loading when objects of varying mass are handled, and alternative solutions in the scientific literature require so many distributed sensors that they are impractical for widespread workplace implementation. We therefore explored new ways to accurately monitor low back loading using a small number of wearable sensors. (2) Methods: We synchronously collected data from laboratory instrumentation and wearable sensors to analyze 10 individuals each performing about 400 different material handling tasks. We explored dozens of candidate solutions that used IMUs on various body locations and/or pressure insoles. (3) Results: We found that the two key sensors for accurately monitoring low back loading are a trunk IMU and pressure insoles. Using signals from these two sensors together with a Gradient Boosted Decision Tree algorithm has the potential to provide a practical (relatively few sensors), accurate (up to r2 = 0.89), and automated way (using wearables) to monitor time series lumbar moments across a broad range of material handling tasks. The trunk IMU could be replaced by thigh IMUs, or a pelvis IMU, without sacrificing much accuracy, but there was no practical substitute for the pressure insoles. The key to realizing accurate lumbar load estimates with this approach in the real world will be optimizing force estimates from pressure insoles. (4) Conclusions: Here, we present a promising wearable solution for the practical, automated, and accurate monitoring of low back loading during manual material handling.Keywords: overexertion injury; ergonomics; machine learning; lumbar moment; risk assessment; wearables; fatigue failure; lifting biomechanics




optical networks a practical perspective solution manual solution manual



Without simulation, there are no autonomous vehicles. No 5G networks. No space exploration. Ansys multiphysics software solutions and digital mission engineering help companies innovate and validate like never before.


Tapping into its communication network security expertise, Huawei provides secure, reliable, and stable network connections for the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system of the oil and gas pipeline network. The company also provides integrated, End to End (E2E) solutions that cover the entire lifecycle of long-distance oil and gas pipeline networks, from network planning, design, integration, and verification testing to construction, deployment, and Operations and Maintenance (O&M).


Huawei has extensive experience providing intelligent connection solutions for pipeline networks and the company prides itself on continuing to consolidate the foundation for smart pipeline network construction.


Based on MS-OTN architecture, OptiXtrans E6600 supports a 4-in-1 highly integrated optical-electrical convergence platform for PCM, SDH, packet, and OTN services. It also supports the smooth evolution to the next generation transport technology Liquid OTN, providing long-distance oil and gas pipeline network communication. Multi-service convergence provides efficient, secure, and reliable transmission solutions.


1.3 Document D3 submitted by the opponent with the notice of opposition in fact consists of a group of documents, including excerpts from the operating manual of the "Acterna OLC-65" optical level controller and a circuit diagram entitled "OLC_65_Block Service.jpg" purportedly relating to the same device. The appellant acknowledged at the oral proceedings before the board that the skilled person who opened up the OLC-65 device would have found the circuit represented in the circuit diagram. Consequently, there was no dispute that the operating manual and the circuit diagram could be considered jointly as a single prior art disclosure.


Re (iii): The board agrees that the OLC-65 device of D3 was not designed for bi-directional links. The safety advice in the operating manual is however plausibly aimed at a service technician who needs to use the device but who may only have a limited knowledge of optical transmission fundamentals and no knowledge of the internal circuit of the device, and not at the skilled person who is an optical communications engineer. The skilled person would readily understand that connecting the OLC-65 into a bi-directional link would not as such be problematic, since the light passing in the reverse direction would simply pass through the device. He would therefore understand that the OLC-65 device can be used to take measurements on a bi-directional link.


2.2.1 The main issue is whether the 3 dB loss introduced by the OLC-65 device of D3 renders the device inherently unusable for passive optical networks, as argued by the appellant. The appellant referred to document D12, Figure 2. This figure shows a table of design data for "BPON Link Models using ITU 983.3 Methodology". A reach value in km is shown for two examples of network design, under the assumption of a "maintenance margin" of 1 dB. The appellant argued that it followed from this that 3 dB was far too great a loss for ensuring continuity of the downstream signal. The board however regards this table as merely setting out the practical limits on the maximum reach achievable. D12 does not imply that all links in passive optical networks are to be designed close to these limits. Therefore, while a 3 dB loss would make a test device unsuitable for testing links with a maintenance margin of only 1 dB, those with a higher margin can be tested, e.g. links where the fibre length to the ONT is much shorter. In any case, claim 1 does not stipulate the type of passive optical network to be tested or set limits on the power margin to be respected. In particular, there is no requirement for the maintenance margin to be only 1 dB. The board also notes that in the main embodiment of the patent in suit, the coupler uses an 80:20 split, which causes an attenuation of approximately 1 dB (referring to signal strength). In paragraph [0042] of the patent it is stated that different ratios may be used, whereby lower ratios entail more attenuation, while higher ratios lead to more polarisation-dependence. Despite the fact that the patent embraces embodiments with an insertion loss greater than 1 dB, there is no mention here that the insertion loss resulting from the coupler split ratio must be low enough to ensure correct reception of the signal by the ONT.


2.2.2 The board notes further that having arrived at a test instrument capable of measuring the power of bi-directional links of a passive optical network with a power margin greater than 3 dB, but not those with a power margin less than 3 dB due to the insertion loss caused by the attenuator, the skilled person would find it an obvious step to look to reduce the insertion loss of the test instrument in order to test links with a lower power margin. An obvious solution that would occur to the skilled person would be to remove the attenuator entirely.


An efficient multi-objective optimization method is proposed for node-based spacecraft radiator design. In contrast to a conventional manual approach to node-based radiator design with a thermal model, the proposed approach finds an optimum design solution for radiator node combinations through an optimization algorithm. The important parameters of radiator design are radiator size and topology, represented by discrete binary design variables allocated to each node division in the candidate radiator region. The optimization problem is formulated as a multi-objective problem with two or more objectives to minimize the number of radiator nodes and temperature margins of unit boxes, and a genetic algorithm suitable for multi-objective optimization is used. A small thermal model (verification thermal model) was developed to verify the proposed multi-objective optimization of the node-based spacecraft radiator design method, and test problems for this thermal model were defined. The numerical optimal solutions for test problems show good agreement with the analytic optimal solutions. Therefore, the applicability and feasibility of the multi-objective optimization of node-based spacecraft radiator design method to practical radiator design were confirmed.


This contribution exploits the duality between a viral infection process and macroscopic air-based molecular communication. Airborne aerosol and droplet transmission through human respiratory processes is modeled as an instance of a multiuser molecular communication scenario employing respiratory-event-driven molecular variable-concentration shift keying. Modeling is aided by experiments that are motivated by a macroscopic air-based molecular communication testbed. In artificially induced coughs, a saturated aqueous solution containing a fluorescent dye mixed with saliva is released by an adult test person. The emitted particles are made visible by means of optical detection exploiting the fluorescent dye. The number of particles recorded is significantly higher in test series without mouth and nose protection than in those with a well-fitting medical mask. A simulation tool for macroscopic molecular communication processes is extended and used for estimating the transmission of infectious aerosols in different environments. Towards this goal, parameters obtained through self experiments are taken. The work is inspired by the recent outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic.


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